The best things I read and listened to in 2016

    I read a lot of things and listened to a lot of things in 2016. Mentioning it all would be time consuming and also dilute the best, so I’ll just pick one from each category:

    Together, these two works are a nearly perfect representation of my non-professional interests at this stage of my life: understanding the universe outside and within my mind.

    Fire in the Mind

    I don’t remember how I stumbled across George Johnson’s Fire in the Mind, but it ended up being the most holistically fascinating thing I read in 2016. Johnson uses his intimate knowledge of physics and Tewa Indian culture, rooted in the hills of the Santa Fe area of New Mexico, to make fascinating connections between the two most fundamental human constructs for explaining reality: science and religion.

    Fire in the Mind is truly universal in the sense that it weaves countless threads through the quantum and classical realms that define the universe that we’re capable of perceiving as humans. I’ve included a few of my favorite quotes below, interspersed with my comments and related things.

    For starters, I really admire how Johnson questions everything, even imposing humility on concepts like Darwinism that in modern life seem indisputable from a scientific perspective:

    Once a filter becomes installed in the brain, it bends everything we see. Gazing out on the jungle, a Darwinist sees the beauty of natural selection, an invisible Maxwellian demon sifting order from randomness in a Sisyphean effort that ultimately cannot succeed. A structuralist imagines instead a multidimensional fitness landscape, the vortices of its basins ensuring an orderly world. Like all of us, both are faced with never knowing the extent to which the patterns they see are out in the world or imposed by the prisms of our nervous systems.

    We are just smart enough to realize how incapable we are of ever answering the questions we come up with:

    We are endowed by nature with this marvelous drive to find order. But we constantly bump up against our limits. Just as a frog can only see objects that move across its visual field with certain motions, so are we aware of only a tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum. But we assume that we can supplement our senses with our minds and with our mathematics. We theorize about frequencies beyond our horizon, the invisible rays of infrared and ultraviolet light, of gamma and radio waves, and we build instruments to detect them. Then we weave stories about how these hidden worlds must be. When we fail to find symmetry in the world around us, we imagine extra dimensions, higher vantage points from which the world will regain its perfection. But for all our efforts, the whole truth will always elude us. Try as we might, we will never succeed in squeezing the immensity of creation into our tiny heads.

    Related: Watch Carl Sagan explain the fourth dimension by imagining creatures confined to a two-dimensional universe.

    The inherent limitation of using mathematics to explain the universe is that we don’t have a system for explaining mathematics itself:

    Gödel, after all, proved that mathematics itself has its limits. In his famous incompleteness theorem, he showed that no logical system can be used to prove its own consistency.

    And so:

    Any effort to explain the world must begin with a leap of faith.

    Sidebar: For me, this brings to mind one of my favorite conclusions from the great physicist Charles H. Townes in 1966:

    … if science and religion are so broadly similar, and not arbitrarily limited in their domain, they should at some time clearly converge. I believe this confluence is inevitable. For they both represent man’s efforts to understand his universe and must ultimately be dealing with the same substance.

    Johnson also wonders how the existence of science and information can be explained in the fabric of the universe. What is science? Is it a platonic form, or part of the “real” world?

    … numbers, equations, and physical laws are neither ethereal objects in a platonic phantom zone nor cultural inventions like chess, but simply patterns of information—compressions—generated by an observer coming into contact with the world.

    … could information also be an artifact, another of our projections? After all, there are not really any 1s or 0s inside a digital computer, just voltages that we chop up by arbitrarily drawing a line and declaring everything below it 0, everything above it 1. Everything going on in the machine could conceivably be described in terms of continuous currents of electricity without recourse to this notion of information.

    Maybe we’re just keeping ourselves busy:

    Sometimes the intelligence of our species seems like a tiny flame flickering on the periphery of a vast blackness, trying to illuminate the void. Who gave us this burden? Will anyone or anything beyond our celestial campsite ever care? If this web is just something we are spinning for our own amusement, it will die along with its creators.

    Our simultaneous advantage and curse compared to other organisms is that we can conceive of these questions at all. Imagine if you could make a conscious being out of legos, then enclose him a box with extra legos that have no obvious form. Imagining watching him wonder why, though made of the same parts as the leftovers in his tiny universe, he is animate and conscious. Imagine the stories he would invent about his possible creators—perhaps even conjecturing that through some improbable shaking of his box, he was formed.

    It’s quite possible all order that sits atop the quantum world is a computer-like simulation, and the conditions and constraints of that simulation likely confine us forever to our tiny box without any ability to think outside of it, even if we dream we can.

    The Science of Mindfulness 

    Speaking of the perils of a runaway mind, I’ve danced around the subject of mindfulness for several years now—reading mostly things written from a Buddhist perspective. In my experience, most such readings ultimately come across as marketing material, so to speak, for Buddhism.

    I think if ever there was a religion or religion-like thing that I could unequivocally subscribe to, Buddhism would be it. But alas I find that Buddhism has too many social impracticalities and cultural stigmas that cause it to clash with my immediate surroundings in the southeastern United States—sort of like trying to adopt a vegan diet in the Arctic. I also think that the more dogmatic anything sounds, the less credibility it has with me. I can’t change how I’m wired.

    Dr. Ronald Siegel’s audio course, The Science of Mindfulness, was a welcome change to the typically Buddhist-centric things I’ve studied in the past on the topic of mindfulness and meditation. As the name suggests, Siegel presents mindfulness from a more universal perspective without relying on any particular religious support. When he does mention Buddhist teachings, it’s more from a psychological and referential perspective. He also notes how western innovations in mindfulness are bettering practices that were traditionally only Buddhist. For me, this was a welcome change from the usual rhetoric that frames eastern traditions as panaceas for everything that’s wrong with the west.

    In my mind, if I could reduce mindfulness to a single practical concept, I would describe it as a thought technology designed to combat a basic problem of the human mind. As Siegel explains:

    The human mind did not evolve to be naturally happy. It evolved to survive. Happiness is not a natural state for a human being.

    Persistent pessimism was a very useful thought technology for early humans. Confronted with an object on the horizon that might be a beige rock or might be a crouched lion, surviving humans were biased to act as though it was a lion. Even if they were wrong, they lived another day. People who systematically worried more survived longer than those that didn’t.

    This persistent negativity bias gives rise to thought processes like “things have gone really well lately, so something horrible must be about to happen soon.” Put simply, we are poorly evolved for our modern environment, which is largely devoid of the perils our minds are equipped to avoid. Absent the need to dodge predators or search for food, all our minds can do is create illusions to worry about.

    No amount of prosperity exempts a human being from these feelings. The human mind will create problems for itself no matter how good things get. In fact, the better off someone is financially, the more they have to lose quantitatively. Hence the fear-driven greed that causes Wall Street billionaires to do unethical things to protect themselves from loss.

    Being able to see thoughts more as fleeting objects and understanding that your perception of yourself is entirely an illusion created by your experiences and emotions is the art of mindfulness. The implications are profound for becoming more mindful in the modern world, which is loaded with attention-stealing stimuli.

    I truly believe cultivating mindfulness is the next frontier in human evolution. Innovation in thought technology will matter far more to our well being than any computer technology. If you have any interest at all in mindfulness, I can’t recommend Siegel’s course enough.

    More macOS Preview PDF trouble

    Brooks Duncan performed several tests to confirm that Preview on macOS Sierra 12.12.2 destroys the OCR text layer of certain PDFs.

    I’ve been extremely happy with PDF Expert as my default PDF app for macOS. I promoted it to my primary PDF app soon after upgrading to Sierra because I noticed that Preview would also break the internal table of contents structure of PDFs.

    I never thought I’d see the day when I couldn’t even trust something as basic as a PDF to Apple’s software. The new PDFkit stuff in Sierra should be an embarrassment to Apple. PDF support should just work.

    Pandoc and Python

    I’ve talked before about using Pandoc to convert Markdown to LaTeX. I’ve been using it a lot this year, and it’s been great to write more in Markdown and code less in LaTeX. Pandoc does a really nice job converting Markdown and even characters like $, %, , etc. into the correct LaTeX syntax (\$, \%, ---, etc.). It also leaves alone any chunks of LaTeX I intersperse in my Markdown files (e.g. equations) so that they’re still there in the final LaTeX output—married with the LaTeX created from Markdown.

    So that’s all the good. For me, the bad of Pandoc is that I don’t think the LaTeX code it generates is very nice to look at. It typesets just fine, but Pandoc inserts extra line breaks by default and does funny things with itemize and enumerate environments that make reading the LaTeX code later difficult—especially annoying when I need to go back into the LaTeX to edit/add things in the future.

    Fortunately I’ve been able to address these shortcomings by learning more about Pandoc’s options and bringing Python into the mix.

    To illustrate, let’s start with some Markdown written in Ulysses, which I use a lot for writing on both macOS and iOS:

    If I copy that Markdown to my clipboard and run a basic pandoc command in terminal like:

    pbpaste | pandoc -f markdown -t latex | pbcopy

    It will create the following LaTeX (shown in Sublime Text 3):

    If I never need to look at the LaTeX code again, this isn’t so bad. It will typeset just fine. But it’s very messy. Namely:

    1. Pandoc uses a \tightlist command to reduce line spacing inside itemize environments. This is unnecessary for me because I have preset styles for bulleted lists in itemize environments.
    2. Pandoc prefers to keep each \item on its own line. This is very inefficient space-wise because you’ll always have at least two lines for each item in a bulleted list. Visually it just looks bad to me because \item represents a bullet, which will precede the text on each line in the actual PDF (like all bullet points do).
    3. By default, Pandoc truncates lines to 60-something characters—essentially assuming the text will be viewed in a text editor that doesn’t wrap lines. As you can see in the screenshot above, I have Sublime Text 3 set to wrap lines for LaTeX because it usually makes LaTeX easier to read. This is just one aspect of LaTeX that makes it more prose-like than code-like. Paragraphs and long lines should not have arbitrary line breaks.

    Fortunately, Pandoc’s developers later added an option to preserve wrapping, which solves problem 3 above:

    pbpaste | pandoc -f markdown -t latex --wrap=preserve | pbcopy

    To fix problems 1 and 2 above (as well as others), I turned to Python, a move that was very wise in hindsight because it lead me to finally develop a reliable process for executing shell commands within Python—something I can see myself using a lot in the future for all kinds of things.

    This is my current Python script:

    import subprocess
    from subprocess import Popen, PIPE, STDOUT
    import sys
    import re
    # Function to get system clipboard contents
    def getClipboardData():
    	p = subprocess.Popen(['pbpaste'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
    	retcode = p.wait()
    	data =
    	return data
    # Function to put data on system clipboard
    def setClipboardData(data):
    	p = subprocess.Popen(['pbcopy'], stdin=subprocess.PIPE)
    	retcode = p.wait()
    # Get Markdown copied to clipboard
    input_text = getClipboardData()
    # Popen pandoc shell command
    p = Popen(['pandoc', '-f', 'markdown', '-t', 'latex', '--wrap=preserve'], stdout=PIPE, stdin=PIPE, stderr=STDOUT)
    # Pass Markdown text to pandoc through stdin and get raw LaTeX from pandoc
    latex = p.communicate(input=input_text)[0]
    # Clean LaTeX:
    latex = re.sub(r'\\tightlist\n', r'', latex) # remove \tightlist
    latex = re.sub(r'\\item\n\s+', r'\t\\item ', latex) # join \item with its text on a single line; also put tabs in front of \item
    latex = re.sub(r'\\label.*', r'', latex) # remove all LaTeX labels

    getClipboardData() and setClipboardData(data) are functions that I stole from Macdrifter. They are really handy for working with the clipboard in macOS. Since I work with Markdown in a lot of different ways, copying it to my clipboard has been the best all purpose way of getting it into a script like this.

    The biggest innovation in this script, for me, is Popen and communicate from the subprocess module. This is really powerful stuff because it basically lets me execute shell commands and work with stdin and stdout just like I would if I was running ad hoc Terminal commands.

    In my script, communicate passes the Markdown text via stdin to the pandoc shell command, then sends the pandoc output through stdout back to Python as a string. This was a huge milestone because once I had the raw LaTeX in a text string within Python, it made it possible to use Python to clean the LaTeX any way I liked.

    The final part of the script runs several regular expression substitutions to clean the output more. Honestly, these could have been done just as easily with the basic replace method, but I have a commitment to myself to use regular expressions as often as possible to get better at them.

    Running the script results in LaTeX that I think is much easier to read and takes up a lot fewer lines:

    I’m sure there are a thousand better ways of accomplishing what this script does for me, but I’m really happy that I can continue writing more LaTeX-bound text in Markdown and know that the final LaTeX will be even easier to work with in the future. It’s also opened the door for a lot more Python automation, which on some level, is probably the entire point of investing time in automation.

    Two great iPhone scanning apps

    As great as the iPhone’s camera is for taking pictures of people, landscapes, and cappuccino milk foam, it’s also turned the iPhone into the most obvious choice for short to medium-length document scanning.

    I use ScanBot almost every day to capture everything from receipts to miscellaneous paper mail items. I keep it on a black and white filter setting, and the scan quality is incredible. The resolution of text is right on par with what I get from a desktop ScanSnap scanner, and when I OCR it later, the text layer is perfect 99.9% of the time.

    The other day, I even used ScanBot to scan an 80-page section of a textbook that I didn’t want to butcher for my ScanSnap. ScanBot recognizes page borders automatically and nearly instantly, making multi-page scanning a breeze. It’s amazing.

    Just recently I discovered TextGrabber via David Sparks. TextGrabber does just what the name says: you simply take a picture of something containing text, then select the portion of the photo containing the part you want. TextGrabber OCRs just that cropped region, allowing you to grab the text right away.

    For a lot of things, this is way more efficient than storing a photo or PDF that would have to be titled with keywords, saved, and/or OCR’ed later. Things like business card information, serial numbers, a block of text from a newspaper article, etc. TextGrabber is made by ABBYY, who makes, in my experience, the most accurate OCR software in the world. DEVONthink Pro Office ships with ABBYY’s OCR technology, and it’s by far the most thorough I’ve ever used.

    Inbox self flagellation

    Kristin Aardsma on letting go of Inbox Zero:

    Inbox Zero is an arbitrary goal; there will always be another customer email or phone call or tweet. Inbox Zero is a fruitless fight for control. It became an image that tied us to our screens, that swallowed any self-care practices we had instilled over the years. It also became a habit of treating our customers less like humans who needed support and more like screens to get rid of.

    I have a deep respect—and I would go so far as to say deep understanding—of the philosophical roots from which Merlin Mann grew Inbox Zero into a internet movement in the mid-2000s. But that was a very different epoch in internet history.

    In the mid-2000s, email was the primary form of text-based internet communication, and it was actually feasible to deal with it like a paper inbox. But so many inboxes have proliferated since then, and email has only gotten worse. Today, to have an Inbox Zero mindset is to be adversarial with one’s self.

    There is just too much to read. Too much to process. Most importantly, too little to be gained by zeroing out an inbox in any moment of earth’s rotation about its axis. In the last year, more than ever, I’ve realized the most enlightened decision is to let the dam break, walk away, and focus on work outside of open inboxes.

    Fraud culture survived the financial crisis

    Stacy Cowley writing about Wells Fargo:

    “Everybody knew there was fraud going on, and the people trying to flag it were the ones who got in trouble,” said Ricky M. Hansen Jr., a former branch manager in Scottsdale, Ariz., who was fired after contacting both human resources and the ethics hotline about illegal accounts he had seen being opened.

    This, along with her other compilation of personal accounts from Wells Fargo employees, is telling. Wells Fargo’s crimes (why is the word crime still not used more in the context of banks?) are some of the most significantly exposed since the financial crisis.

    I can’t help but wonder if all the time spent on massive pieces of bank regulation like Dodd-Frank was misguided. Regulation focuses on metrics, audit procedures, and corporate governance policies that are no match for real human behavior in an environment that rewards deception.

    I really feel like regulation needs to focus more on human behavior and group psychology. After all, the greatest systemic risks arise once the herd’s mentality shifts so that ethical behavior becomes the exception to fraudulent behavior.

    Though in a different context, this is exactly what brought the financial system to its knees in 2008. The few people that understood and acted in accordance with the truth became the fools.

    Tables are hard unless you own TableFlip

    I’ve been a fan of Christian Tietze for a while. He was one of the original people to fork Notational Velocity in a more Markdown-centric direction—a burst of evolution in 2010 that later culminated in Brett Terpstra and David Halter’s nvALT.

    Christian’s latest contribution to the world of plain text writing is TableFlip, a wonderful Mac app that solves a problem that’s as old as HTML: making tables for the web sucks.

    Even though Fletcher Penney’s MultiMarkdown made creating tables in a Markdown-kind-of-way possible—and significantly easier than hand-coding HTML tables—creating a table in plain text is still a visually challenging task. For very small tables (e.g. 2x2), it’s fairly straightforward. But for larger tables, the column alignment becomes cumbersome.

    Before TableFlip, I usually created MultiMarkdown tables with a spreadsheet workflow. This worked well, but required a lot of ad hoc spreadsheet formula writing and also meant I had to store spreadsheet files indefinitely for any tables that I might want to edit later.

    TableFlip is the best of the plain text and spreadsheet-like world in one. It provides an intuitive spreadsheet-like tabular interface, which makes creating tables from scratch really easy.

    When you’re ready to plant the table in your plain text file, you can simply copy it as MultiMarkdown to your clipboard. As a bonus, it comes out beautifully aligned in plain text as well.

    You can go the other way, too. TableFlip can read an existing MultiMarkdown table into its tabular UI. You can even copy an existing MultiMarkdown table and create a new table in TableFlip from the clipboard.

    For me, this two-way feature is brilliantly simple and effective. It shows that TableFlip is made for anyone who knows all the practical difficulties of working with tables.

    I’m excited for the future of TableFlip. Christian is planning to add even more features, including LaTeX export. I really think TableFlip is a must-have for anyone that routinely creates tables as a part of any kind of plain text writing workflow. Like I said before, making tables sucks. But now I have to modify that statement:

    Making tables sucks unless you own TableFlip.

    At $18.99, it’s a no-brainer, but you can get it even cheaper than that through October 31.

    Diverting screenshots from the Desktop

    Downloads is by far the busiest folder on my Mac. Almost all files to Downloads before other destinations. Hazel keeps a watchful eye on Downloads and does all sorts of file moving magic, never leaving anything there for more than 24 hours.

    For some silly reason I’ve always accepted that screen shots in OS X (now macOS) are saved directly to the Desktop. Today I finally learned that screen shots, too, can go straight to Downloads (or any other folder). No more F11‘ing to view my Desktop. Now, like all other download-esque files, I can grab recent screen shots from the fan view of my Downloads dock shortcut.


    Modern survival is antithetical to everything evolution programed us for. Today we have to:

    1. Eat much less than is available
    2. Move much more than we have to
    3. Take many more daily risks than we have to

    Today, complacency is the tiger rustling in the bushes. Vulnerability is the key to longevity.

    Applauding the epitome

    David Hansson on not hating modern Apple:

    There’s just something deeply inspiring about seeing what companies, teams, and people can accomplish at the peak of their ability. Especially when it’s happening not just for a single season, but as a reign of excellence.

    Post-1997 Apple, Alabama football under Nick Saban, even the US economy post-World War II: non-fans love to make digs at a perennial winner. But I agree with David. It’s OK to admire any person or entity that can sustain peak success.

    Survival and hunger will naturally motivate any organism. But it’s uniquely human to redefine the possible just for the sake of it. It’s the loneliest of places to work—at the top. But those that do elevate us all.

    Pros and cons of the wireless future

    The ear bud status quo

    • Cons
      • Persistently tangled ear bud wires
      • Wires catching on things while walking
    • Pros
      • No battery life issue
      • Nothing additional to charge
      • Cheap (they’re in every drawer of your home by now)

    The wireless AirPod future

    • Cons
      • Another wire on the night stand (another battery to charge)
      • No music when the battery dies
      • Additional pairing step for use with Mac, iPad, etc.
      • Easier to drop and lose
      • More expensive to buy/replace
    • Pros
      • Fewer tangled wire issues
      • Only plug in a wire once per day instead of throughout day
      • More practical to use in a car (but why?)

    Conclusion: This is going to take some courage.

    Decoupling the original vision

    Efficient creative work at the edge of the adjacent possible is basically:

    1. Envisioning your dream home fully built
    2. Finding the most elemental materials to build it
    3. Building a completely different and better home than you ever could have imagined

    Inefficient creative work is the failure to release the original vision—the false notion that you can know in advance what lies beyond the been-done-before.

    It was the glass-half-emptiest of times

    The Guardian:

    In an ironic vicious circle,… the despair that people feel – about developments including the rise of Trump – is the same kind of thing that fuels the rise of Trump. (The campaign to leave the European Union seemed similarly focused on sweeping away the status quo and hoping for the best.) The sense that the world is an increasingly terrible place, whether or not it really is, is itself a phenomenon with real effects that we can’t afford to ignore.

    Earlier in the article:

    The trouble is that, when it comes to getting an accurate grip on things, the modern media and the human brain are both strikingly poorly designed.

    Perhaps making the world better has to start with the realization that it’s far, far better than we perceive. No easy feat when our social information systems and senses prioritize negativity above all else.

    A penny for your apps

    David Sparks made a sobering observation on the closing down of the note taking app Vesper:

    If the dream team couldn’t make it work, who can?

    In my mind, the challenge faced by productivity app developers can be traced to the Jekyll and Hyde personas of a capitalist citizen:

    1. Joe Seller wants a monopoly market
    2. Joe Buyer wants a commodity market

    In most markets, profits spike initially then dissipate as #1 moves to #2. With modern software, this transition happens at the speed of thought. It doesn’t matter how prolific an app team might be. Never before have so many people known how to code. Never before have software products been so accessible to so many.

    The decentralization of software development and distribution makes establishing monopolies or seller-controlled markets virtually impossible. Software is an extreme opposite to a product category like pharmaceuticals. An app developer can’t pull off an EpiPen. As soon as a great app appears, clones abound.

    I could go into the App Store right now and find 20 great note taking apps whose pros and cons cancel out. Any one of them would be great for me, but I can’t use them all.

    Pricing apps as non-digital goods is hopeless in the long run. If you’ve read the Internet at all, you’ve seen what I call “the latte rationalization,” which goes something like this:

    If you spend $5 a day on coffee, why can’t you spend $5 one time on an app that benefits you every day?

    This is a great example of an argument that holds up from a rational perspective but fails spectacularly from a behavioral perspective.

    Most people who buy apps do so in response to the pleasurable feeling of experiencing something new. It’s a sensation—a very fleeting one. This is extremely different from the recurring pleasure people get from regularly consuming caffeine and sugar—substances that please a much more primitive part of the brain than cerebral software-based productivity can ever hope to in the current version of the human mind.

    As I’ve written here before, software is simply a form of encoded human information. People are willing to purchase information, but they will only spend so much, and they will only purchase the same information so many times. There is no pleasure center in the brain for redundancy.

    A service model might be the answer, but only if buyers believe the service is unique and essential. That is, it must provide new and useful information on an ongoing basis. For most successful business models, this means the real product is not the app, but the thoughts that pass through the app.

    We may step back one day and realize that the software economy was humankind’s first (inadvertent) success at valuing knowledge. For now, we’re learning the hard way that few thoughts are original.

    Procrastination is for the over-serious

    “Just start” is the generic advice you usually hear from someone trying to help a procrastinator. Another: “break it into smaller pieces.” Seems logical, but not very interesting.

    In my personal experience, the best advice is: “make it fun.”

    No matter your age, your mind still wants to have a good time. The best products are by-products of someone having good time—enjoying the process. So change the setting, spend some money, or just goof-off until something begins to materialize. Why not?